Online ISSN: 3007-0244,
Print ISSN:  2410-4280
ISSUES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, DIAGNOSTICS AND ORGANIZATION OF ONCOLOGICAL SERVICE IN CHILDREN: LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction. In childhood, malignant neoplasms are quite rare, which leads to insufficient alertness of doctors in terms of their early diagnosis. This is especially true for general practitioners, since they rarely see such patients. It is known that up to 75% of children are admitted to cancer centers for treatment at stages III-IV of the disease, while approximately 80% of childhood cancers can be successfully diagnosed and treated using advanced therapies and supportive care. The application of the latest technologies has led to improved treatment rates and dramatically increased cure rates for childhood cancer in recent years, but not all children with cancer diagnoses have been able to really benefit from these advances. The aim of this study is to analyze the literature on the organization of pediatric oncology services. Search strategy. We conducted a literature search in the databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase. A combination of key words and terms of medical subject headings (MeSH) related to the topic under study is compiled. Тaking into account the period of existence of pediatric oncology in Kazakhstan, we used literature data for the last 30 years. The search revealed 939 publications. The current review includes 80 publications. Results. This review includes an analysis of publications on the organization of oncological services in children with malignant neoplasms. The achievements of recent years in the diagnosis of cancer in children, the organization of a system of care for this category of patients, general recommendations for medical staff who diagnose, treat and care for this category of patients are presented. Conclusion. Malignant tumors are one of the leading causes of death in children and adolescents worldwide, and are diagnosed annually in approximately 300,000 children from birth to 19 years of age. Neoplastic processes in childhood, which occur in children and adolescents aged 0–19 years, are divided into different types, depending on the cellular composition and location of the tumor. Epidemiology in pediatric oncology has its own characteristics. In contrast to the epidemiology of oncological diseases in adults, the occurrence of a tumor is less related to geographical and other environmental factors.
Aigul Kaliyeva1, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9146-8781 Assiya Turgambayeva1*, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2300-0105 Zhandulla Nakipov1, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5528-693X Gaukhar Dauletova1, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1621-8149 Gaukhar Saurbayeva1, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8614-0033 Karlygash Tebenova2, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0648-7828 1 NJSC "Astana Medical University", Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan; 2 Academician E.A. Buketov Karaganda University, Department of Special and Inclusive Education, Karaganda, Republic of Kazakhstan.
1. Абдрахманов З.Н., Позднякова А.П., Филипенко В.И. Состояние онкологической помощи населению Республики Казахстан в 1993-1997 гг. Алматы. 1998. 68 с. 2. Арзыкулов З.А., Сейтказина Г.Ж., Махатаева А.Ж. и др. Показатели онкологической службы в Республике Казахстан за 2006 год (статистические материалы). Алматы, 2007. 56 с. 3. Арзыкулов З.А., Сейтказина Г.Ж., Жумашев У.К. Проблемы детской онкологии // Сборник научных трудов международной научно-практической конференции «Актуальные проблемы онкологии». Алматы, 2003. С. 50-52. 4. Арзыкулов З.А. Онкологическая помощь населению Республики Казахстан. Текущая ситуация и перспективы // Материалы IV съезда онкологов, радиологов Республики Казахстан (13-14 сентября 2001 г.). Алматы, 2001. С. 4-6. 5. Арзыкулов З.А., Сейтказина Г.Ж., Махатаева А.Ж. Показатели онкологической службы Республики Казахстан за 2007 год (статистические материалы). Алматы, 2008. 66с. 6. Жумашев У.К. Онкологическая служба детского населения в Казахстане // Вестник КазНМУ. № 1, 2012, pp. 131-137. 7. Жумашев У.К., Токтасын Н.А., Тунгышбаева Н.К., Жакашова А.М., Киикбаева М.М. Эпидемиология злокачественных новообразований у детского населения Казахстана // Вестник КазНМУ. 2013. № 3 (2). С. 95-102. 8. Жуковская Е.В., Бондаренко В.П., Спичак И.И., Сидоренко Л.В. Таргетная терапия больных нейрофиброматозом (обзор литературы) // В мире научных открытий. 2017. Том. 9. № 4. С. 205-218. 9. Румянцев А.Г. Перспективы таргетной терапии острых лейкозов у детей // Вопросы гематологии, онкологии и иммунопатологии в педиатрии. 2017. Том. 16. № 2. С. 62-74. 10. Румянцев А.Г. Роль гематологии-онкологии и иммунологии в развитии педиатрии // Российский журнал детской гематологии и онкологии (РЖДГиО). 2014. №4, С. 41-47. 11. Сидоренко Л.В., Бронин Г.О., Брынза Е.В. и др. Организационные аспекты восстановительного лечения больных с онкологическими и гематологическими заболеваниями на основе опыта Медицинского реабилитационного научного центра «Русское поле». Педиатрический вестник Южного Урала. 2015. № 1. С. 21-22. 12. Alibek K., et al. Childhood cancers: what is a possible role of infectious agents? // Infect Agents Cancer. 2013. 8(1):48. 13. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Models of long-term follow-up care. 2020. https://www.asco.org/practice-policy/cancer-care-initiatives/preventionsurvivorship/survivorship/survivorship-3. Accessed June 10, 2020. 14. Amir H., et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma before and during a human immuno-defciency virus epidemic in Tanzanian children // Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001. 20(5):518–21. 15. Amitay E.L., Keinan-Boker L. Breastfeeding and childhood leukemia incidence: a Meta-analysis and systematic review // JAMA Pediatr. 2015. 169:e151025. 16. Askins M.A., Moore B.D. Preventing neurocognitive late effects in childhood cancer survivors // J Child Neurol. 2008. Vol.23:1160–1171. 17. Bailey H.D., Metayer C., Milne E. et al. Home paint exposures and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Findings from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium // Cancer Causes Control 2015. 26:1257-1270. 18. Bao P.P., Zheng Y., Wu C.X., et al. Population-based survival for childhood cancer patients diagnosed during 2002-2005 in Shanghai // China Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012. 59(4):657-661. 19. Beal MA, Yauk CL, Marchetti F: From sperm to offspring: Assessing the heritable genetic consequences of paternal smoking and potential public health impacts. Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res 773:26-50, 2017 20. Bhakta N., Force L.M., Allemani C., Atun R., Bray F., Coleman M.P. et al. Childhood cancer burden: a review of global estimates // Lancet Oncol. 2019. 20:e42–53. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30761-7 21. Bhattacharya S. et al. Maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood cancer: record linkage study // BMJ Open. 2014. 4(1):e003656. 22. Bloom M., Maciaszek J. L., Clark M. E., et al. Recent advances in genetic predisposition to pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia // Expert Rev. Hematol. 2020. Vol. 13. № 1. P. 55–70 23. Boffetta P., Tredaniel J., Greco A. Risk of childhood cancer and adult lung cancer after childhood exposure to passive smoke: A meta-analysis // Environ Health Perspect 2000. 108:73-82, 24. Bonaventure A., Harewood R., Stiller C.A. et al. Worldwide comparison of survival from childhood leukaemia for 1995-2009, by subtype, age, and sex (CONCORD-2): a population-based study of individual data for 89 828 children from 198 registries in 53 countries // Lancet Haematol. 2017. 4(5):e202-e217. 25. Botsivali M., Kyrtopoulos S.A. Transplacental exposure to carcinogens and risks to children: Evidence from biomarker studies and the utility of omic profiling // Arch Toxicol. 2019. 93:833-857. 26. Brabant C., Geerinck A., Beaudart C., Tirelli E., Geuzaine C., Bruyère O. Exposure to magnetic fields and childhood leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. Rev Environ Health. 2022 Mar 15;38(2):229-253. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2021-0112. PMID: 35302721. 27. Brondani V.B., Fragoso M.C. Pediatric adrenocortical tumor - review and management update // Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2020. 27:177-186 28. Brodeur G.M., Nichols K.E., Plon S.E., Schiffman J.D., Malkin D. Pediatric cancer predisposition and surveillance: an overview, and a tribute to Alfred G. Knudson // Jr Clin Cancer Res. 2017. 23:e1–5. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-0702 29. Byrjalsen A., Hansen T.V.O., Stoltze U.K. et al. Nationwide germline whole genome sequencing of 198 consecutive pediatric cancer patients reveals a high frequency of cancer prone syndromes // PLoS Genet 16:e1009231, 2020 30. Buka I., Koranteng S., Osornio Vargas A.R. Trends in childhood cancer incidence: review of environmental linkages // Pediatr Clin N Am. 2007. 54(1):177–203. 31. Calderon-Margalit R, Pleniceanu O, Tzur D, Stern-Zimmer M, Afek A, Erlich T, Verhovsky G, Keinan-Boker L, Skorecki K, Twig G, Vivante A. Childhood Cancer and the Risk of ESKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2021 Feb;32(2):495-501. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2020071002. Epub 2020 Nov 12. PMID: 33184124; PMCID: PMC8054900. 32. Chan CW, Choi KC, Chien WT, et al. Health-related quality-oflife and psychological distress of young adult survivors of childhood cancer in Hong Kong. Psychooncology. 2014;23(2):229-236 33. Chen S.L., Zhang H., Gale R.P. et al. Toward the cure of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children in China // JCO Glob Oncol. 2021. 7:1176-1186. 34. Chen J., Gu L., Yao H. Evaluation of long-term disease-free quality of life in 22 children with acute leukemia // Chin J Pediatr. 2000. 38(2):111-112. 35. Cheung Y.F., Li S.N., Chan G.C., Wong S.J., Ha S.Y. Left ventricular twisting and untwisting motion in childhood cancer survivors // Echocardiography. 2011. 28(7):738-745. 36. Chintu C., Athale U.H., Patil P. Childhood cancers in Zambia before and after the HIV epidemic // Arch Dis Child. 1995. 73(2):100–5. 37. Christopher JKM, Aleksandr YA, Peng Z, Cristiana A, Kaja MA, Mohsen AK, et al. (GBD 2019 Risk Factors Collaborators). Global burden of 87 risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2019 // Lancet. 2020. 396:1223–49. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30752-2 38. Chiaretti S., Vitale A., Cazzaniga G. et al. Clinico-biological features of 5202 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia enrolled in the Italian AIEOP and GIMEMA protocols and stratifed in age cohorts // Haematologica. 2013. 98(11):1702–1710 39. Clavel J., Steliarova-Foucher E., Berger C., Danon S., Valerianova Z. Hodgkin's disease incidence and survival in European children and adolescents (1978-1997): report from the Automated Cancer Information System project // Eur J Cancer. 2006. 42 (13): 2037-49. 40. Close A.G., Dreyzin A., Miller K.D. et al. Adolescent and young adult oncology-past, present, and future // CA Cancer J Clin. 2019. 69(6):485–496. 41. Cordioli M.I., Moraes L., Carvalheira G., Sisdelli L., Alves M.T., Delcelo R., Monte O., Longui C.A., Cury A.N., Cerutti J.M. AGK-BRAF gene fusion is a recurrent event in sporadic pediatric thyroid carcinoma // Cancer Med. 2016 Jul. 5(7):1535-41. 42. Cui L., Li Z.G., Chai Y.H. et al. Outcome of children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with CCLGALL 2008: the first nation-wide prospective multicenter study in China // Am J Hematol. 2018. 93(7):913-920. 43. Cybulski C., Nazarali S., Narod S.A. Multiple primary cancers as a guide to heritability // Int. J. Cancer. 2014. Vol. 135. № 8. P. 1756–1763. 44. Da Rocha Paiva Maia R, Filho VW: Infection and childhood leukemia: Review of evidence // Rev Saude Publica. 2013. 47:1172-1185. 45. De Jong A. E., Morreau H., Van Puijenbroek M., et al. The role of mismatch repair gene defects in the development of adenomas in patients with HNPCC // Gastroenterology. 2004. Vol. 126. № 1. P. 42–48. 46. Degar B, Isakof M. Chapter 123 - childhood cancer. In: Zaoutis LB, Chiang VW, editors. Comprehensive pediatric hospital medicine. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2007. p. 774–9. 47. Diessner B.J., Pankratz N., Hooten A.J. et al. Nearly half of TP53 germline variants predicted to be pathogenic in patients with osteosarcoma are de novo: A report from the Children’s Oncology Group // JCO Precis Oncol. 2020. 4:1187-1195. 48. Domingues A., Moore K.J., Sample J., Kharoud H., Marcotte E.L., Spector L.G. Parental Age and Childhood Lymphoma and Solid Tumor Risk: A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis // JNCI Cancer Spectr. 2022 May 2;6(3):pkac040. 49. Druker H., Zelley K., McGee R. B., et al. Genetic Counselor Recommendations for Cancer Predisposition Evaluation and Surveillance in the Pedatric Oncology Patient // Clin. Cancer Res. 2017. Vol. 23. № 13. P. e91–e97. 50. Else T. Association of adrenocortical carcinoma with familial cancer susceptibility syndromes // Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 2012. Vol. 351. № 1. P. 66– 70. 51. Elysia M.A., Lisa M.F., Rixing X., Kelly C., Dan L., Hannah J.H. et al. GBD 2019 adolescent young adult cancer collaborators. The global burden of adolescent and young adult cancer in 2019: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2019 // Lancet Oncol. 2022 23:27–52. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00581-7 52. Garber J.E., Offit K. Hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes // J. Clin. Oncol. 2005. Vol. 23. № 2. P. 276–292. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2005.10.042. 53. Gelband H, Jha P, Sankaranarayanan R, Horton S, editors. Cancer: Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 3). Washington (DC): The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank; 2015 Nov 1. PMID: 26913318. 54. Gong Q.Q., Quan D.D., Guo C., Zhang C., Zhang Z.J. Association between maternal breastfeeding and risk of systemic neoplasms of offspring // Ital J Pediatr. 2022 Jun 16. 48(1):98. 55. Goss P.E., Strasser-Weippl K., Lee-Bychkovsky B.L., Fan L., Li J., Chavarri-Guerra Y. et al. Challenges to effective cancer control in China, India, and Russia // Lancet Oncol. 2014 15:489–538. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70029-4 56. Graubert T.A. A call to action for acute lymphoblastic leukemia // N Engl J Med. 2014. 371(11):1064–1066. 57. Grobner S.N., Worst B.C., Weischenfeldt J. et al. The landscape of genomic alterations across childhood cancers // Nature. 2018. 555:321-327. 58. Ferrari A., Stark D., Peccatori F.A. et al. Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer: a position paper from the AYA Working Group of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) // ESMO Open. 2021. 6(2):100096. 59. Feulefack J., Khan A., Forastiere F., Sergi C.M. Parental Pesticide Exposure and Childhood Brain Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Confirming the IARC/WHO Monographs on Some Organophosphate Insecticides and Herbicides // Children (Basel). 2021 Nov 28. 8(12):1096. 60. Fiala E.M., Jayakumaran G., Mauguen A. et al. Prospective pan-cancer germline testing using MSK-IMPACT informs clinical translation in 751 patients with pediatric solid tumors // Nat Cancer. 2021. 2:357-365. 61. Frank T.S. Hereditary cancer syndromes // Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 2001. Vol. 125. № 1. P. 85– 90. 62. Freedman D.M., Stewart P., Kleinerman R.A. et al. Household solvent exposures and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia // Am J Public Health. 2001. 91:564-567. 63. Fucic A., Guszak V., Mantovani A. Transplacental exposure to environmental carcinogens: Association with childhood cancer risks and the role of modulating factors // Reprod Toxicol. 2017. 72:182-190. 64. Fu X., Xie X., Zhao Y. Neurocognitive function of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and long-term disease-free survival and related influencing factors // Chin J Contemp Pediatr. 2017. 19(8):899-903. 65. Futreal P.A., Coin L., Marshall M., Down T., Hubbard T., Wooster R., et al. A census of human cancer genes // Nat. Rev. Cancer. 2004. Vol. 4. № 3. P. 177–183. DOI: 10.1038/nrc1299 66. Haidong W., Kaja M.A., Mitra A., Mohsen A.K., Hedayat A., Foad A.A., et al. GBD 2019 Demographics Collaborators. Global age-sex-specific fertility, mortality, healthy life expectancy (HALE), and population estimates in 204 countries and territories, 1950–2019: a comprehensive demographic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2019 // Lancet. (2020) 396:1160–203. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30977-6 67. Hampel H., Bennett R. L., Buchanan A., et al. Guideline Development Group, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Professional Practice and Guidelines Committee and National Society of Genetic Counselors Practice Guidelines Committee. A practice guideline from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors: referral indications for cancer predisposition assessment // Genet. Med. 2015. Vol. 17. № 1. P. 70–8. 68. He J.R., Ramakrishnan R., Hirst J.E. et al. Maternal infection in pregnancy and childhood leukemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis // J Pediatr 217:98-109.e8, 2020 69. Heymann S., Delaloge S., Rahal A. Radio-induced malignancies after breast cancer postoperative radiotherapy in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome // Radiat. Oncol. 2010. № 5. P. 104. DOI: 10.1186/1748-717X-5-104 70. Hjalgrim L.L., Rostgaard K., Schmiegelow K., Söderhäll S., Kolmannskog S., Vettenranta K. et al. Age- and sex-specific incidence of childhood leukemia by immunophenotype in the Nordic countries // J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003. 95:1539–44. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djg064 71. Houot J., Marquant F., Goujon S., Faure L., Honoré C., Roth M.H. et al. Residential proximity to heavy-traffic roads, benzene exposure, and childhood Leukemia-The GEOCAP study, 2002–2007 // Am J Epidemiol. 2015. 182:685– 93. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv111 72. Hui M.R., Min Q.L., Fang F.Z., Xue F.S., Li Y.H. Appendix 2 of GBD dataset. Figshare (2022) // J Contri. doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.19493930 73. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Global health data exchange. Accessed September 25, 2020. http://ghdx.healt hdata.org/gbd-results-tool 74. International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization. Cancer today. Accessed September 25, 2020. https://gco.iarc.fr/today/online-analysis-table 75. Jastaniah W., Aljefri A., Ayas M., Alharbi M., Alkhayat N., Al-Anzi F., et al. Prevalence of hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes in children with cancer in a highly consanguineous population // Cancer Epidemiol. (2018) 55:88–95. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2018.05.006 76. Jongmans M.C., Loeffen J.L., Waanders E. Recognition of genetic predisposition in pediatric cancer patients: An easy-to-use selection tool // Eur. J. Med. Genet. 2016. Vol. 59. № 3. P. 116–125. 77. Kakizoe T. Ten years after implementation of cancer control act // Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2016. 43(9):1023–1026. 78. Kamihara J., Bourdeaut F., Foulkes W.D. et al: Retinoblastoma and neuroblastoma predisposition and surveillance // Clin Cancer Res. 2017. 23:e98-e106. 79. Kassebaum N., Kyu H.H., Zoeckler L., Olsen H.E., Thomas K., Pinho C. et al. Child and adolescent health from 1990 to 2015: findings from the global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors 2015 study // JAMA Pediatr. 2017. 171:573–92. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0250 80. Kayode G.A., Adekanmbi V.T. Uthman O.A. Risk factors and a predictive model for under-five mortality in Nigeria: evidence from Nigeria demographic and health survey // BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012. 12:10. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-10 References: [1-11] 1. Abdrakhmanov Z.N., Pozdnyakova A.P., Filipenko V.I. Sostoyanie onkologicheskoi pomoshchi naseleniyu Respubliki Kazakhstan v 1993-1997 gg. [State of oncology care for the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 1993-1997]. Almaty. 1998. 68p. [in Russian] 2. Arzykulov Z.A., Seytkazina G.Zh., Makhataeva A.Zh., et al. Pokazateli onkologicheskoi sluzhby v Respublike Kazakhstan za 2006 god (statisticheskie materialy) [Indicators of oncological service in the Republic of Kazakhstan for the year 2006 (statistical materials)]. Almaty, 2007. 56p. [in Russian] 3. Arzykulov Z.A., Seytkazina G.Zh., Zhumashev U.K. Problemy detskoi onkologii [Problems in pediatric oncology]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii «Aktual'nye problemy onkologii» [Collection of scientific papers of the international scientific-practical conference "Current Problems of Oncology"]. Almaty, 2003. pp. 50-52. [in Russian] 4. Arzykulov Z.A. Onkologicheskaya pomoshch' naseleniyu Respubliki Kazakhstan. Tekushchaya situatsiya i perspektivy [Oncology care for the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Current situation and prospects]. Materialy IV s"ezda onkologov, radiologov Respubliki Kazakhstan (13-14 sentyabrya 2001 g.). [Materials of the IV Congress of Oncologists, Radiologists of the Republic of Kazakhstan] (September 13-14, 2001)]. Almaty, 2001. pp. 4-6. [in Russian] 5. Arzykulov Z.A., Seytkazina G.Zh., Makhataeva A.Zh. Pokazateli onkologicheskoi sluzhby Respubliki Kazakhstan za 2007 god (statisticheskie materialy) [Indicators of oncology service in the Republic of Kazakhstan for the year 2007 (statistical materials)]. Almaty, 2008. 66p. [in Russian] 6. Zhumashev U.K. Onkologicheskaya sluzhba detskogo naseleniya v Kazakhstane [Oncological service of the children's population in Kazakhstan]. Vestnik KazNMU. [Bulletin of KazNMU]. 2012. No.1, pp.131-137. [in Russian] 7. Zhumashev U.K., Toktasyn N.A., Tungyshbaeva N.K., Zhakashova A.M., Kiikbaeva M.M. Epidemiologiya zlokachestvennykh novoobrazovanii u detskogo naseleniya Kazakhstana [Epidemiology of malignant tumors in the pediatric population in Kazakhstan]. Vestnik KazNMU. [Bulletin of KazNMU]. 2013. No.3 (2). pp. 95-102. [in Russian] 8. Zhukovskaya E.V., Bondarenko V.P., Spichak I.I., Sidorenko L.V. Targetnaya terapiya bol'nykh neirofibromatozom (obzor literatury) [Targeted therapy in patients with neurofibromatosis (literature review)]. V mire nauchnykh otkrytii [In the world of scientific discoveries]. 2017. Vol. 9. No. 4. pp. 205-218. [in Russian] 9. Rumyantsev A.G. Perspektivy targetnoi terapii ostrykh leikozov u detei [Perspectives of targeted therapy for acute leukemia in children]. Voprosy gematologii, onkologii i immunopatologii v pediatrii. [Questions of hematology/oncology and immunopathology in pediatrics]. 2017. Vol. 16. No. 2. pp. 62-74. [in Russian] 10. Rumyantsev A.G. Rol' gematologii-onkologii i immunologii v razvitii pediatrii [The role of hematology, oncology, and immunology in the development of pediatrics]. Rossiiskii zhurnal detskoi gematologii i onkologii [Russian Journal of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology]. 2014. 4. pp. 41-47. [in Russian] 11. Sidorenko L.V., Bronin G.O., Brynza E.V., et al. Organizatsionnye aspekty vosstanovitel'nogo lecheniya bol'nykh s onkologicheskimi i gematologicheskimi zabolevaniyami na osnove opyta Meditsinskogo reabilitatsionnogo nauchnogo tsentra «Russkoe pole». [Organizational aspects of rehabilitative treatment for patients with oncological and hematological diseases based on the experience of the "Russian Field" Medical Rehabilitation Scientific Center]. Pediatricheskii vestnik Yuzhnogo Urala [Pediatric Herald of the South Ural]. 2015. No. 1. pp. 21-22. [in Russian]
Number of Views: 84

Key words:

Category of articles: Reviews

Bibliography link

Kaliyeva A., Turgambayeva A., Nakipov Zh., Dauletova G., Saurbayeva G., Tebenova K. Issues of epidemiology, diagnostics and organization of oncological service in children: literature review // Nauka i Zdravookhranenie [Science & Healthcare]. 2023, (Vol.25) 3, pp. 223-234. DOI 10.34689/SH.2023.25.3.029

Авторизируйтесь для отправки комментариев