Online ISSN: 3007-0244,
Print ISSN:  2410-4280
HISTORICAL OUTLINE OF THE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF SPINAL ANESTHESIA, DELIVERY EQUIPMENT FOR LOCAL ANESTHETICS AND CURRENT TRENDS IN PAIN MANAGEMENT OF UNILATERAL OPERATIONS ON THE LOWER EXTREMITIES
Introduction. There is a large amount of literature and a wealth of data on indications, contraindications, administration technique, and the necessary equipment for the correct performance of spinal anesthesia (SA). For completeness of perception and possibly also to optimize the technical aspects of SA, in order to minimize the risks associated with this type of anesthesia, it is useful for specialists who routinely perform this type of anesthesia and encounter various complications of subarachnoid puncture and the introduction of a local anesthetic to know the history of regional anesthesia, the evolution of SA equipment, as well as current trends in this type of anesthesia. Aim. To analyze the literature reflecting the current information on the development of spinal anesthesia from the very first evidence, to the most advanced SA techniques, the history of the development of spinal needles, possible complications associated with the spinal puncture technique, as well as an informed choice of the safest and most effective method of anesthesia. Search strategy. This study includes publications taken for analysis from the most relevant databases such as PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, e-library and cyberleninka. Key queries included the following terms: regional anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, unilateral spinal anesthesia, spinal anesthesia needle, electrical nerve stimulation. The depth of the search is mainly up to 10 years, however, there were also works of earlier years that have significant scientific value. Initially, according to search queries, 113 articles were found, of which 76 were selected for review. Results and conclusions. This historical overview of spinal anesthesia combines both early and more recent experience of the scientific and clinical use of spinal anesthesia in a historical context. The history of the appearance of the prerequisites and the first cases of the use of spinal anesthesia, the stages of the invention of various types of needles and local anesthetics, as well as the features of the SA technique at various spinal levels are outlined. The data presented in the article allow us to take a fresh look at the known methods of anesthesia, and the ways of modernizing spinal anesthesia proposed by the authors allow us to fully unlock the potential for a seemingly standard method of anesthesia and help us to improve it both in scientific and clinical aspects.
Yernar D. Mamyrov1, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4070-2165 Daulet U. Mamyrov1, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7887-1736 Yoshihiro Noso2, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3477-1260 Marat K. Syzdykbaev3, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0561-4111 1 Department of Emergency Medicine, Pavlodar Branch of NCJSC “Semey Medical University” Pavlodar, Republic of Kazakhstan; 2 Department of Health Services Management, Hiroshima International University, Hiroshima, Japan; 3 Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Reanimatology, NCJSC “Semey Medical University”, Semey, Republic of Kazakhstan.
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Mamyrov Y.D., Mamyrov D.U., Noso Yo., Syzdykbaev M.K. Historical outline of the stages of development of spinal anesthesia, delivery equipment for local anesthetics and current trends in pain management of unilateral operations on the lower extremities // Nauka i Zdravookhranenie [Science & Healthcare]. 2023, (Vol.25) 4, pp. 200-212. doi 10.34689/SH.2023.25.4.025

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