CASE-CONTROL STUDIES IN HEALTH SCIENCES

In this paper we present basic principles of planning and carrying out case-control studies in health sciences as well as analyzing the data collected in these studies. We present practical examples of sample size and effect measures calculation for matched and unmatched case-control studies using online calculators and Epi Info software. Examples of studies using case-control design from international peer-reviewed literature are also presented. This article provides general introduction to case-control studies and does not substitute specialized literature in clinical epidemiology.

A. M. Grjibovski1-3, S. V. Ivanov4, M. A. Gorbatova2

1 Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway;

2 Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia;

3 International Kazakh – Turkish University, Turkestan, Kazakhstan;

4 North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, St. Petersburg, Russia

Литература:
1.         Банержи А. Медицинская статистика понятным языком: вводный курс. М. : Практическая медицина, 2007. 287 с.
2.         Власов В. В. Эпидемиология : учебное пособие для вузов. М. : ГЭОТАР-Медиа, 2004. 448 с.
3.         Воробьев К. П. Формат современной журнальной публикации по результатам клинического исследования. Часть 3 // Укр. мед. часопис. 2008. №2. С. 150-160.
4.         Гланц С. Медико-биологическая статистика. М. : Практика, 1998. 459 с.
5.         Гржибовский А. М. Анализ номинальных данных (независимые наблюдения) // Экология человека. 2008. №6. С. 58-68.
6.         Гржибовский А. М. Выбор статистического критерия для проверки гипотез // Экология человека. 2008. №11. С. 48–57.
7.         Гржибовский А. М. Доверительные интервалы для частот и долей // Экология человека. 2008. №5. С. 57-60.
8.         Доннели-мл. Р. А. Статистика. М. : Астрель : АСТ, 2007. 367 с.
9.         Зуева Л. П., Яфаев Р. Х. Эпидемио-логия : учебник. СПб : ООО «Издательство Фолиант», 2008. 752 с.
10.     Филиппенко Н. Г. Методические основы проведения клинических исследований и статистической обработки полученных данных: методические рекомендации для аспирантов и соискателей медицинских вузов / Н.Г. Филиппенко, С.В. Поветкин. Курск. : Издательство КГМУ, 2010. 26 с.
11.     Флетчер Р. Клиническая эпидемио-логия. Основы доказательной медицины: пер. с англ. / Р. Флетчер, С. Флетчер, Э. Вагнер. М. : Медиа Сфера, 1998. 352 с.
12.     Brenner H., Chang-Claude J., Seiler C. M. et al. Protection From Colorectal Cancer After Colonoscopy A Population-Based, Case-Control Study // Annals of Internal Medicine. 2011. Vol. 1. P. 22-U156.
13.     Cancer Epidemiology: Principles and Methods. Ed. by I. Dos Santos Silva. 1999. 425 p.
14.     Cleopas T. J. et al. Statistics Applied to Clinical Trials. 4th ed. Springer, 2009.
15.     Coureau G., Bouvier G.,. Lebailly P. et al. Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study // Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2014. Vol. 0. P. 1–9.
16.     Doll R., Hill R. Smoking and carcinoma of the lung // British Medical Journal, 1950. Sep. 30. P. 739-748.
17.     Jha P., Jacob B., Gajalakshmi V. et al. A nationally representative case-control study of smoking and death in India // New England Journal of Medicine. 2008. Vol. 11. P. 1137-1147.
18.     Kelsey J. L, Whittemore A. S., Evans A. S. et al. Methods in observational epidemiology. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996.
19.     Kieler H., Malm H., Artama M. et al. Use of antidepressants and association with elective termination of pregnancy: population based case-control study // International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2014. Nov 14. P. 1-7.
20.     Mann C. J. Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies // Emergency Medical Journal. 2003. Vol 20. P. 54–60.
21.     Vander Weele T. J. Sample Size and Power Calculations for Case-only Interaction Studies // Epidemiology. 2011. Vol. 6. P. 873-874.
  References:
1.         Banerzhi A. Meditsinskaya statistika ponyatnyim yazyikom: vvodnyiy kurs. [Introduction to medical statistics]. M. : Prakticheskaya meditsina, 2007. P. 287. [in Russian]
2.         Vlasov V.V. Epidemiologiya : uchebnoe posobie dlya vuzov. [Epidemiology: the textbook] M. : GEOTAR-Media, 2004. P. 448. [in Russian]
3.         Vorob'ev K. P. Format sovremennoy zhurnalnoy publikatsii po rezultatam klinicheskogo issledovaniya. Chast 3. [The modern format of journal publications on the results of clinical studies. Part 3]. Ukr. med. Chasopis [Ukrainian medical journal]. 2008. No. 2. PP. 150-160. [in Ukraine]
4.         Glants S. Mediko-biologicheskaya statistika [The biomedical statistics]. M. : Praktika, 1998. PP. 459. [in Russian]
5.         Grjibovski A.M. Analiz nominal'nyh dannyh (nezavisimye nablyudeniya) [Analysis of nominal data]. Ekologiya cheloveka [Human Ecology]. 2008. No. 6. PP. 58-68. [in Russian]
6.         Grjibovski A.M. Vybor statisticheskogo kriteriya dlya proverki gipotez [Choosing a statistical test for hypothesis testing]. Ekologiya cheloveka [Human Ecology]. 2008. No.11. PP. 48-57. [in Russian]
7.         Grjibovski A.M. Doveritel'nye intervaly dlya chastot i dolej [Confidence intervals for proportions]. Ekologiya cheloveka [Human Ecology]. 2008. No.5. PP. 57-60. [in Russian]
8.         Donneli-ml. R.A. Statistika. M. : Astrel : AST, 2007.  P.367. [in Russian]
9.         Zueva L.P, Yafaev R.H. Epidemiologiya : uchebnik [Epidemiology: the textbook]. SPb: OOO «Izdatelstvo Foliant», 2008. P. 752 . [in Russian]
10.      Filippenko N.G. Metodicheskie osnovyi provedeniya klinicheskih issledovaniy i statisticheskoy obrabotki poluchennyih dannyih: metodicheskie rekomendatsii dlya aspirantov i soiskateley meditsinskih vuzov [Basics of clinical trials and statistic analysis] / N.G. Filippenko, S.V. Povetkin. Kursk. : Izdatelstvo KGMU, 2010. P. 26. [in Russian]
11.      Fletcher R. et al. Klinicheskaya ehpidemiologiya. Osnovy dokazatel'noj mediciny [Clinical epidemiology. Basics of the evidence-based medicine] / R. Fletchtr, C. Fletcher, E. Vagner. M. : Media Sphere, 1998. 352 p. [in Russian]
12.      Brenner H., Chang-Claude J., Seiler C.M. et al. Protection From Colorectal Cancer After Colonoscopy A Population-Based, Case-Control Study. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2011. Vol. 1. P. 22-U156.
13.      Cancer Epidemiology: Principles and Methods. Ed. by I. Dos Santos Silva. 1999. 425 p.
14.      Cleopas T.J. et al. Statistics Applied to Clinical Trials. 4th ed. Springer, 2009.
15.      Coureau G., Bouvier G., Lebailly P. et al. Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2014. Vol. 0. P. 1–9.
16.      Doll R., Hill R. Smoking and carcinoma of the lung. British Medical Journal, 1950. Sep. 30. P. 739-748.
17.      Jha P., Jacob B., Gajalakshmi V. et al. A nationally representative case-control study of smoking and death in India. New England Journal of Medicine. 2008. Vol. 11. P. 1137-1147.
18.      Kelsey J.L, Whittemore A.S., Evans A.S. et al. Methods in observational epidemiology. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996.
19.      Kieler H., Malm H., Artama M. et al. Use of antidepressants and association with elective termination of pregnancy: population based case-control study. International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2014. Nov 14. P. 1-7.
20.      Mann C. J. Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies. Emergency Medical Journal. 2003. Vol 20. P. 54–60.
Vander Weele T. J. Sample Size and Power Calculations for Case-only Interaction Studies. Epidemiology. 2011. Vol. 6. P. 873-874
Number of Views: 2013


Bibliography link

Grjibovski A. M., Ivanov S. V., Gorbatova M. A. Case-control studies in health sciences. Nauka i Zdravoohranenie [Science & Healthcare]. 2015, 4, pp. 5-17.