COVID-19 IN KAZAKHSTAN: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINIC
Introduction. Coronavirus infection 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe acute respiratory infection that causes coronavirus 2 and which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) [1]. The virus was the first detected in December 2019 during an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China [2]. The outbreak quickly spread outside of China, and on January 30, WHO declared a public health emergency of international concern and then officially announced a pandemic on March 11, 2020 [3]. The disease named as COVID-19 and the pathogen named SARS-CoV-2 [4]. In Kazakhstan, the first cases of new coronavirus infection (CVI) recorded on March 13, 2020 in the cities of Almaty and Nur-Sultan. These were imported cases from Germany and Italy. Aim of research. To analyze the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Kazakhstan and the clinical manifestations of infection in the East Kazakhstan region (EKR). Material and methods: A retrospective study was conducted in Kazakhstan. The epidemiological data on the new CVI were taken from the data of the Committee for Quality and Safety Control of Goods and Services of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan since January 2020. The case histories of patients with CVI hospitalized in the Semey Infectious Disease Hospital were analyzed too. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed by the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which was carried out in a reference laboratory for especially dangerous pathogens (Ust-Kamenogorsk, Semey). The conclusion of the ethics committee was not conducted, since the study was a retrospective analysis of data using descriptive statistical analysis. Results: In Kazakhstan, from the beginning of January, preventive measures began. They include 4 stages, such as strengthening sanitary and epidemiological control at the state border, introducing laboratory diagnostics of a new infection, approving the first clinical protocol for diagnosing and treating CVI and anti-epidemic measures. Passenger rail transport, air traffic inside and outside the country were stopped, the development and implementation of a ranking methodology depending on the risk of spread of coronavirus infection, as well as the introduction of monitoring of arriving people depending on the country of arrival. To prevent the spread of the disease, a state of emergency and quarantine were introduced in the country. In March, the registration of cases was mainly among contact and imported persons. In April, preventive testing began and an increase in the incidence of CVI was associated with an increase in the volume of testing for coronavirus infection. In April-May, 66% were patients identified during screening. After the lifting of the state of emergency, quarantine restrictions remained with a gradual relaxation depending on the epidemiological situation in the country and region. Conclusion. In Kazakhstan, as in other countries, the incidence of COVID-19 is growing. Preventive measures play a large role in the control of new coronavirus infection.
Saule B. Maukayeva 1, http://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-2679-6399 Saltanat E. Uzbekova 1, http://orcid.org/0000–0001–9006–120X Ainash S. Orazalina 1, http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4594-0138 Darkhan E. Uzbekov 1, http://orcid.org/0000–0003–4399–460X Yersin T. Zhunussov 1, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1182-5257 Mukhtar B. Musabekov1 http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4893-1114 «Semey Medical University» NJSC, Semey city, Republic of Kazakhstan.
1. Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2 // Nat Microbiol. 2020 Apr;5(4):536-44. 2. Ren L.L., Wang Y.M., et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus causing severe pneumonia in human: a descriptive study // Chin Med J (Engl). 2020 Jan 30: 1015-1024. 3. Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response EpidemiologyTeam. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novelcoronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China // Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing XueZaZhi. 2020;41: 145–51 4. World Health Organization. WHO Director-General’s remarks atthe media briefing on 2019-nCoV on 11.02.2020. Availableat:https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-remarks-atthe-media-briefing-on-2019-ncov-on-11-february-2020. Accessed Apr14, 2020. 5. Mc Creary E.K., Pogue J.M. Coronavirus disease 2019 treatment: a review of early and emerging options // Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020 Apr;7(4):ofaa105. 6. Sanders J.M., Monogue M.L., Jodlowski T.Z., et al. Pharmacologic treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a review // JAMA. 2020 Apr 13.: 1824-1836. 7. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public. 2020. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public. 8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How to protect yourself and others. 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html. 9. Liang T. Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment 2020. Available at: https://www.alnap.org/help-library/handbook-of-covid19-prevention-and-treatment. (Accessed Apr 14, 2020). 10. Kakimoto K., Kamiya H., Yamagishi T., Matsui T., Suzuki M., Wakita T. Initial Investigation of Transmission of COVID-19 Among Crew Members During Quarantine of a Cruise Ship - Yokohama, Japan, February 2020 // MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:312–3. 11. World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 disease is suspected. 2020. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public. 12. Zhan M., Qin Y., Xue X., et al. Death from Covid-19 of 23 health care workers in China // N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 15.: 1-2. 13. Colaneri M., Sacchi P., Zuccaro V., et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) early findings from a teaching hospital in Pavia, North Italy, 21 to 28 February 2020 // EuroSurveill. 2020 Apr;25(16). 14. CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Severe outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): United States, February 12 - March 16, 2020 // MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Mar 27;69(12):343-6. 15. Tomlins J., Hamilton F., Gunning S., et al. Clinical features of 95 sequential hospitalised patients with novel coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19), the first UK cohort // J Infect. 2020 Apr 27. 16. Ludvigsson J.F. Systematic review of COVID-19 in children show milder cases and a better prognosis than adults // Acta Paediatr. 2020 Mar 23. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15270 17. Chen Z.M., Fu J.F., Shu Q., et al. Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus // World J Pediatr. 2020 Feb 5.: 240-246. 18. Dong Y., Mo X., Hu Y., et al. Epidemiological characteristics of 2143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in China // Pediatrics. 2020, Mar 16. https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2020/03/16/peds.2020-0702.full.pdf. 19. Castagnoli R, Votto M, Licari A, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children and adolescents: a systematic review // JAMA Pediatr. 2020, Apr 22. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32320004/
Number of Views: 92

Key words:

Bibliography link

Maukayeva S.B., Uzbekova S.E., Orazalina A.S., Uzbekov D.E., Жунусов Е.Т., Musabekov M.B. COVID-19 in Kazakhstan: epidemiology and clinic // Nauka i Zdravookhranenie [Science & Healthcare]. 2020, (Vol.22) 3, pp. 17-21. doi 10.34689/SH.2020.22.3.003