ANALYSIS OF THE LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF THE INCIDENCE OF VIRAL HEPATITIS B AND C IN THE TERRITORY OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN (RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS)
Introduction. The analysis of the primary incidence of viral hepatitis B and C in the country will determine the trends of the epidemiological process, in order to improve prevention programs. The aim of the study: To study the primary incidence of viral hepatitis B and C in the Republic of Kazakhstan during the analyzed period and to determine the epidemiological features. Materials and methods: The study used a retrospective epidemiological analysis of primary morbidity from 2009 to 2020. Data source official accounting and reporting documentation of the Branch "Scientific and Practical Center for Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise and Monitoring" Republican State Enterprise on the right of economic management "National Center for Public Health" Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Research results: The level of primary morbidity of acute viral hepatitis in 2020 decreased by 9.9 times (from 5742 in 2009 to 579 in 2020) with indicators of 3.05 per 100 thousand population compared to 2009 with indicators of 36.16, including viral hepatitis C by 4.4 times with indicators of 0.83 per 100 thousand population in 2009 to 0.28 per 100 thousand population in 2020 and acute viral hepatitis B by 4.5 times with indicators of 3.21 per 100 thousand population in 2009 to 0.19 per 100 thousand population in 2020 year. The highest proportion of carriers by year was determined in patients of drug treatment hospitals (17%) in 2015. In 2020, the proportion of carriers of viral hepatitis B was 7%, carriers of viral hepatitis C-14.7% among patients of drug treatment hospitals, which was significantly higher compared to the groups: donors, pregnant women, newborns, patients of planned hospitalization, medical workers. Conclusions: Thus, the spread of viral hepatitis B and C among the general population is global, the consequences of which are detrimental not only to the health of humanity, in the form of liver damage (the development of cirrhosis of the liver), but also to the health system. Many risk factors contribute to the spread of viral hepatitis C, of which the leading one is still parenteral, when injecting drugs are used. Despite the large-scale immunoprophylactic work among the population of Kazakhstan, the primary incidence of viral hepatitis B continues to be registered.
Gauhar A. Sakupova1, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8326-3660 Natal'ja Ye. Glushkova2, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1400-8436 Zhanar N. Sulejmenova3, Manar A. Smagul3, Mejramgul' K. Smagulova3, Elena K. Kasabekova3, Zaituna A. Khismetova4, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5937-3045 1 "Kazakh Scientific Center of Dermatology and Infectious Diseases" of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; 2 Аl-Farabi Kazakh National university Almaty с., Republic of Kazakhstan; 3 Branch "Scientific and Practical Center for Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise and Monitoring" of the RSE at the National Center for Public Health of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty c., Republic of Kazakhstan Introduction; 4 NCJSC «Semey Medical University», Semey c., Republic of Kazakhstan.
1. ВОЗ. Вирусный гепатит: тайный убийца становится явным. URL: https://www.who.int/publications/-10-year-review/hepatitis/ru/ (дата обращения: 16.12.2020). 2. ВОЗ призывает страны вкладывать средства в элиминацию гепатита. URL: https://www.who.int/ru/news/-item/26-07-2019-who-urges-countries-to-invest-in-eliminating-hepatitis (дата обращения: 17.12.2020). 3. Всемирная организация здравоохранения Гепатит В и ВИЧ-инфекция: тактика ведения пациентов с коинфекцией. Всемирная организация здравоохранения, 2011. 10 c. 4. Жапарбеков А.Н. ВИЧ и вирусный гепатит C // Вестник Инновационного Евразийского университета. URL: https://articlekz.com/article/13394 (дата обращения: 17.12.2020). 5. Пашкевич И.В., Стасюк Т.С., Сеньковец Т.А. Особенности заболеваемости вирусными гепатитом В среди населения Пинского и Столинского района // Полес Гу. 2019. C. 6. 6. Петрова Ю.П. Распространенность генотипов вируса гепатита среди ВИЧ-инфицированных лиц в Чувашской Республике. URL: https://www.elibrary.-ru/item.asp?id=41261636 (дата обращения: 19.12.2020). 7. Ситник Т.Н., Чемодурова Ю.В., Мамчик Н.П., Мамчик Т.А. и др. Распространенность маркеров вирусных гепатитов В и С у отдельных контингентов в Воронежской области // Профилактическая и клиническая медицина. 2017. № 64 (3). C. 21–27. 8. Слободенюк А.В., Косова А.А., Ан Р.Н. Эпидемиологический анализ. Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования Уральский государственный медицинский университет. Екатеринбург, 2015. С.5. 9. Chang J.J., Mohtashemi N., Bhattacharya D. Significance and Management of Isolated Hepatitis B Core Antibody (Anti-HBc) in HIV and HCV: Strategies in the DAA Era // Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 2018. Т. 15. № 2. C. 172–181. 10. Deming P., McNicholl I.R. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus: Challenges and therapeutic advances - Insights from the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists // Pharmacotherapy. 2011. Т. 31. № 4. C. 357–368. 11. Farooq P.D., Sherman K.E. Hepatitis B Vaccination and Waning Hepatitis B Immunity in Persons Living with HIV // Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 2019. Т.16. № 5. C. 395–403. 12. Khantimirova L.M. et al. Retrospective Analysis of Viral Hepatitis B Incidence in Russia from 2013 to 2017 in the Context of Preventive Vaccination // BIOpreparations. Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment. 2018. №4(18). C. 225–235. 13. Mallet V., Vallet-Pichard A., Pol S. The impact of human immunodeficiency virus on viral hepatitis // Liver International. 2011. № SUPPL. 1 (31). C. 135–139. 14. Razavi H. et al. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and level of intervention required to achieve the WHO targets for elimination in the European Union by 2030: a modelling study // The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2017. № 5 (2). 15. Riaz M.N. et al. PCR-Based Molecular Diagnosis of Hepatitis Virus (HBV and HDV) in HCV Infected Patients and Their Biochemical Study // Journal of Pathogens. 2016. (2016). C. 1–8. 16. Sarin S.K. et al. Asian-Pacific clinical practice guidelines on the management of hepatitis B: a 2015 update // Hepatology International. 2016. Т. 10. № 1. C.1–98. 17. Scheel T.K.H., Rice C.M. Understanding the hepatitis C virus life cycle paves the way for highly effective therapies // Nature Medicine. 2013. Т. 19. № 7. C. 837–849. 18. Schillie S. et al. Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: Recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices // MMWR Recommendations and Reports. 2018. № 1 (67). C. 1–31. 19. Sereno L. et al. Epidemiology, responses, and way forward: The silent epidemic of viral hepatitis and HIV coinfection in Vietnam // Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care. 2012. № 5 (11). C. 311–320. 20. Stabinski Lara, O’Connor Siobhan, Barnhart Matthew, Kahn Rebecca J., Hamm T.E. Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B Virus Co-Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Potential Impact and Program Feasibility of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Screening in Resource-Limited Settings // JAIDS journal of acquired immune deficiency syndrome 2015.№68. р.S274-S285. 21. Terrault N.A. et al. Update on Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment and of Chronic Hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 Hepatitis B Guidance Purpose and Scope of the Guidance HHS Public Access // Hepatology. 2018. № 4 (67). C. 1560–1599. 22. World Health Organization. Global hepatitis report. 2017. 83, p 9 p. 23. WHO Hepatitis B [Electronic resource]. URL: https://www.who.int/ru/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b. Rеfеrеncеs: 1. VOZ. Virusnyi gepatit: tainyi ubiica stanovitsya yavnym [WHO. Viral hepatitis: the undercover killer is revealed]. URL: https://www.who.int/publications/10-year-review/hepatitis/ru/ (data obrashheniya: 16.12.2020). [in Russian] 2. VOZ prizyvaet strany vkladyvat' sredstva v eliminatsiyu gepatita [WHO urges countries to invest in hepatitis elimination]. URL: https://www.who.int/ru/news/item/26-07-2019-who-urges-countries-to-invest-in-eliminating-hepatitis (data obrashheniya: 17.12.2020). [in Russian] 3. Vsemirnaya organizatsiya zdravookhraneniya. Gepatit V i VICh-infektsiya: taktika vedeniya patsientov s koinfektsiei [World Health Organization Hepatitis B and HIV Infection: Management of Coinfected Patients. World health organization], 2011. 1 p. [in Russian] 4. Zhaparbekov A.N. VICh i virusnyj gepatit C [HIV and viral hepatitis C]. Vestnik Innovatsionnogo Yevraziyskogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Innovative University of Eurasia]. URL: https://articlekz.com/article/13394 (data obrashheniya: 17.12.2020). [in Russian] 5. Pashkevich I.V., Stasyuk T.S., Sen'kovec T.A. Osobennosti zabolevaemosti virusnym gepatitom V sredi naseleniya Pinskogo i Stolinskogo raiona [Features of the incidence of viral hepatitis B among the population of the Pinsk and Stolin regions]. Poles Gu [Poles Gu]. 2019. p. 6. [in Russian] 6. Petrova Ju.P. Rasprostranennost' genotipov virusa gepatita sredi VICh-inficirovannyh lic v Chuvashskoj Respublike [Prevalence of hepatitis virus genotypes among HIV-infected persons in the Chuvash Republic]. URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=41261636 (data obrashheniya: 19.12.2020). [in Russian] 7. Sitnik T.N., Chemodurova Ju.V., Mamchik N.P., Mamchik T.A. et al. Rasprostranennost' markerov virusnykh gepatitov V i S u otdel'nykh kontingentov v Voronezhskoi oblasti [Prevalence of markers of viral hepatitis B and C in certain contingents in the Voronezh region]. Profilakticheskaya i klinicheskaya meditsina [Preventive and clinical medicine]. 2017. T. 3. № 64. pp. 21–27. [in Russian] 8. Slobodenyuk A.V., Kosova A.A., An R.N. Epidemiologicheskii analiz . Gosudarstvennoe byudzhetnoe obrazovatel'noe uchrezhdenie vysshego professional'nogo obrazovaniya Ural'skii gosudarstvennyi meditsinskii universitet [Epidemiological analysis. State budgetary educational institution of higher professional education Ural State Medical University]. Ekaterinburg, 2015. р. 5 [in Russian] 9. Chang J.J., Mohtashemi N., Bhattacharya D. Significance and Management of Isolated Hepatitis B Core Antibody (Anti-HBc) in HIV and HCV: Strategies in the DAA Era. Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 2018. Т.15. №2. C.172–181. 10. Deming P., McNicholl I.R. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus: Challenges and therapeutic advances - Insights from the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. Pharmacotherapy. 2011. Т. 31. № 4. C. 357–368. 11. Farooq P.D., Sherman K.E. Hepatitis B Vaccination and Waning Hepatitis B Immunity in Persons Living with HIV. Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 2019. Т. 16. № 5. C. 395–403. 12. Khantimirova L.M. et al. Retrospective Analysis of Viral Hepatitis B Incidence in Russia from 2013 to 2017 in the Context of Preventive Vaccination. BIOpreparations. Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment. 2018. №4(18). C. 225–235. 13. Mallet V., Vallet-Pichard A., Pol S. The impact of human immunodeficiency virus on viral hepatitis. Liver International. 2011. № SUPPL. 1 (31). C. 135–139. 14. Razavi H. et al. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and level of intervention required to achieve the WHO targets for elimination in the European Union by 2030: a modelling study. The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2017. № 5 (2). 15. Riaz M.N. et al. PCR-Based Molecular Diagnosis of Hepatitis Virus (HBV and HDV) in HCV Infected Patients and Their Biochemical Study. Journal of Pathogens. 2016. (2016). C. 1–8. 16. Sarin S.K. et al. Asian-Pacific clinical practice guidelines on the management of hepatitis B: a 2015 update. Hepatology International. 2016. Т.10. №1. C. 1–98. 17. Scheel T.K.H., Rice C.M. Understanding the hepatitis C virus life cycle paves the way for highly effective therapies. Nature Medicine. 2013. Т. 19. № 7. C. 837–849. 18. Schillie S. et al. Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: Recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices. MMWR Recommendations and Reports. 2018. № 1 (67). C. 1–31. 19. Sereno L. et al. Epidemiology, responses, and way forward: The silent epidemic of viral hepatitis and HIV coinfection in Vietnam. Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care. 2012. № 5 (11). C. 311–320. 20. Stabinski Lara, O’Connor Siobhan, Barnhart, Matthew, Kahn Rebecca J., Hamm T.E. Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B Virus Co-Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Potential Impact and Program Feasibility of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Screening in Resource-Limited Settings. JAIDS journal of acquired immune deficiency syndrome 2015.№68. р.S274-S285. 21. Terrault N.A. et al. Update on Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment and of Chronic Hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 Hepatitis B Guidance Purpose and Scope of the Guidance HHS Public Access. Hepatology. 2018. №4 (67). C. 1560–1599. 22. World Health Organization. Global hepatitis report. 2017. 83, p 9 p. 23. WHO Hepatitis B [Electronic resource]. URL: https://www.who.int/ru/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b.
Number of Views: 18

Key words:

Bibliography link

Sakupova G.A., Glushkova N.Ye., Sulejmenova Zh.N., Smagul M.A., Smagulova M.K., Kasabekova E.K., Khismetova Z.A. Analysis of the long-term dynamics of the incidence of viral hepatitis B and C in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan (retrospective analysis) // Nauka i Zdravookhranenie [Science & Healthcare]. 2021, (Vol.23) 4, pp. 163-171. doi 10.34689/SH.2021.23.4.018