ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННЫЕ ОСНОВЫ СКРИНИНГА КОЛОРЕКТАЛЬНОГО РАКА В МИРОВОЙ МЕДИЦИНСКОЙ ПРАКТИКЕ. ОБЗОР ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
Актуальность. Рак ободочной и прямой кишки (колоректальный) является третьим по распространенности раком в мире. Он поддается скринингу, так как скрининговое исследование может быть осуществлено на предраковых, латентных, ранних и излечимых стадиях. При скрининге колоректального рака могут использоваться прямые или непрямые методы, применяемые произвольно или в структуре организованных программ. Большинство случаев колоректального рака диагностируется в возрасте старше 60 лет. Большинство программ скрининга относятся к лицам в возрасте 50-75 лет. Цель обзора – Анализ подходов и результатов скрининга колоректального рака в мировой медицинской практике для формирования рекомендаций для отечественного здравоохранения. Стратегия поиска. Поиск литературных источников осуществлен в Medline и Кокрейновском регистре контролируемых исследований с использованием следующих ключевых слов/сочетаний: «colorectal cancer AND/OR colon cancer AND/OR rectal cancer AND screening OR early diagnostic OR prevention AND guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT), faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin (FIT), flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS), CT colonography (CTC), DNA-marker and video capsule endoscopy». Глубина поиска составила 20 лет с 2000 г. по 2019 г. В обзор включены данные метаанализов и рандомизированных клинических исследований, проведенных и опубликованных за период 2000-2019 гг. Исключены данные исследований класса доказательности менее В. Результаты анализа. Скрининг позволяет добиться снижения смертности от заболевания в результате его выявления на ранних стадиях и частоты развития рака посредством выявления предраковых состояний (полипов толстой кишки), которые могут быть удалены. В рандомизированных контролируемых исследованиях (РКИ) было обнаружено, что применение гваяковой пробы для обнаружения крови в кале снижает смертность от колоректального рака на 13-33%. Методика иммунохимического анализа (FIT) еще превосходит gFOBt. Исследования результатов сигмоидоскопии продемонстрировали снижение заболеваемости на 18% и снижение смертности от рака данной локализации на 28%. В настоящее время доказательные исследования колоноскопического скрининга немногочислены. Хотя это еще не подтверждено в РКИ, вполне вероятно, что колоноскопия является лучшим методом скрининга. С точки зрения охвата населения, организованные программы превосходят оппортунистический скрининг. Организованные программы, использующие более дешевые методы, такие как FS / FIT, могут быть лучше адаптированы к бюджету и возможностям здравоохранения. Заключение. Проведение скрининга колоректального рака в Казахстане должно в большей степени учитывать
Раушан С. Жолмурзаева Кафедра общественного здравоохранения, Казахский медицинский университет непрерывного образования, г.Алматы, Республика Казахстан.
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