In today's world, osteoporosis is a widespread issue that affects not only adults but also children and adolescents. Various scientific studies indicate that bone strength is determined during childhood as the body matures. This period is marked by a rapid growth spurt that is influenced by genetic factors, hormonal changes, nutritional habits, and chronic diseases. With the onset of puberty, there is a rapid increase in the mineral content in the bones, reaching a peak shortly after the peak increase in growth. Lifestyle choices affect 20-40% of an adult's peak bone mass. It is assumed that exercises during growth counteract the involutional loss of bone mass at a later age due to an increase in peak bone mass. In turn, this disrupts the proper formation and mineralization of the bone skeleton, which actively gains peak mass by the age of 18 (up to 90%). In addition, maximizing age-related bone mass can also prevent fractures during growth, especially fractures of the upper extremities. In order to reduce the chances of experiencing fractures, it is important to implement methods for enhancing bone health from a young age. The purpose of the study: to study the literature on the influence of physical activity and sports in children and adolescents in the development of osteoporosis. Methods: A systematic search was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Google Academy, Cochrane Library. Key words such as “osteoporosis”, “adolescent”, “dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry”, “exercise”, “sport” were used in the literature search in databases. This search was limited to English-language studies published within 10 years (2013-2023). Results. This review examined the main risk factors for osteoporosis in children and adolescents. The greatest attention is paid to the effect of physical activity on the bone tissue of children and adolescents and the use of densitometry in a comprehensive examination for early diagnosis of the disease in order to prevent the development of pathology.
Madina R. Madiyeva1, Alida Sh. Kaskabaeva1, Tamara Kh. Rymbaeva1, Aliya R. Alimbaeva1, Dinara O. Akhmetzhanova1, Gulzhan B. Bersimbekova1, Gulnur B. Kanapiyanova1, 1 NСJSC «Semey Medical University», Semey, Republic of Kazakhstan.
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Madiyeva M.R., Kaskabaeva A.Sh., Rymbaeva T.Kh., Alimbaeva A.R., Akhmetzhanova D.O., Bersimbekova G.B., Kanapiyanova G.B. The role of physical activity on the development of osteoporosis in children and adolescents. Literature review // Nauka i Zdravookhranenie [Science & Healthcare]. 2023, (Vol.25) 5, pp. 172-177. DOI 10.34689/SH.2023.25.5.021

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