MEDICAL AND SOCIAL PROBLEM OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN KAZAKHSTAN
Introduction. In the most developed countries cardiovascular diseases (CVD) take the highest rank in the structure of mortality, they are a major cause of disability, and the question of their prevention is medical and social problems. The aim of the study is analysis of structure, morbidity and mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases in Kazakhstan and particularly in the East Kazakhstan Region, in comparison with worldwide rates. Methods. Descriptive analysis of statistical data on demographics, mortality and morbidity rates in the Kazakhstan population using official information from statistical compilations "Health of the population of Kazakhstan and activities of public health organizations" for 2011-2013, as well as global data statistics about cardiovascular diseases using databases “PubMed”, “Cochrane library”, “Research Gate” system, and the annual reports of the WHO. Results. Mortality from CVD is 52.8% of the total mortality of the Kazakhstan population. This is mainly due to Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases, which proportion in CVD mortality structure is 47.7% and 36.4%, respectively. In 2013 mortality rate from CVD in Kazakhstan was 256.76 per 100,000; in the East Kazakhstan Area it was one of the highest in the country - 361.44 per 100,000. In the rural areas these figures were significantly lower than in urban areas: 203.63 per 100,000; in the East Kazakhstan region - 403.7. Morbidity rate from CVD was 2463.1 per 100,000, for women these rates were 2612.5 per 100,000. Incidence rate of hypertension in Kazakhstan was 1172.5 per 100,000 (for women - 1352.3); in the East Kazakhstan region - 1084.6 per 100,000 (for women - 1548.0). The incidence of coronary heart disease was 507.4 and 519.8 per 100,000, respectively. Conclusion: CVD mortality in Kazakhstan is in 3-4 times higher than in highly developed countries, which needs in implementation the prevention programs.

A. M. Grjibovski1-3, S. V. Ivanov4

1 Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway;

2 International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia;

3 International Kazakh – Turkish University, Turkestan, Kazakhstan;

4 North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Литература:

1.         Банержи А. Медицинская статистика понятным языком: вводный курс. М. : Практическая медицина, 2007. 287 с.

2.         Власов В. В. Эпидемиология: учебное пособие для вузов. М. : ГЭОТАР-Медиа, 2004. 448 с.

3.         Воробьев К. П. Формат современной журнальной публикации по результатам клинического исследования. Часть 3 // Укр. мед.часопис. 2008. №2. С. 150-160.

4.         Гланц С. Медико-биологическая статистика. М. : Практика, 1998. 459 с.

5.         Гржибовский А. М. Анализ номиналь-ных данных (независимые наблюдения) // Экология человека. 2008. №6. С. 58-68.

6.         Гржибовский А. М. Выбор статистичес-кого критерия для проверки гипотез // Экология человека. 2008. №11. С. 48–57.

7.         Гржибовский А. М. Доверительные интервалы для частот и долей // Экология человека. 2008. №5. С. 57-60.

8.         Доннели-мл. Р. А. Статистика. М. : Астрель : АСТ, 2007. 367 с.

9.         Зайцев В. М., Аликбаева Л. А. Меди-цинская статистика в амбулаторно-поликлини-ческих учреждениях промышленных предприя-тий: учеб.пособие. СПб. : Изд-во СПбГМА им. И.И. Мечникова, 2009. 416 с.

10.     Зуева Л. П., Яфаев Р. Х. Эпидемио-логия : учебник. СПб : ООО «Издательство Фолиант», 2008. 752 с.

11.     Инфекционные болезни и эпидемиоло-гия: Учебник / В.И. Покровский [и др.]. Изд. 2-е. М.: ГЭОТАР-Медиа, 2007. 816 с.

12.     Марьянович А. Т., Князькин И. В. Диссертация: инструкция по подготовке и защите. СПб. : Астрель-СПб. 2009. 403 с.

13.     Основы медицинской статистики: учебно-методическое пособие / Под ред. В.С. Лучкевича. СПб. : Изд-во СЗГМУ им. И.И. Мечникова, 2014. 32 с.

14.     Применение методов статистического анализа для изучения общественного здоровья и здравоохранения: учеб.пособие для практических занятий / Под ред. В.З. Кучеренко. 4-е изд., перераб. и доп. М. : ГЭОТАР-Медиа, 2011. 256 с.

15.     Филиппенко Н. Г. Методические осно-вы проведения клинических исследований и статистической обработки полученных данных: методические рекомендации для аспирантов и соискателей медицинских вузов / Н. Г. Филиппенко, С. В. Поветкин. Курск. : Издательство КГМУ, 2010. 26 с.

16.     Флетчер Р. Клиническая эпидемиоло-гия. Основы доказательной медицины: пер. с англ. / Р. Флетчер, С. Флетчер, Э. Вагнер. М. : Медиа Сфера, 1998. 352 с.

17.     Abikulova A. K., Tulebaev K. A., Akanov A. A., Turdalieva B. S., Kalmahanov S. B., Kumar A. B., Izekenova A. K., Mussaeva B. A., Grjibovski A. M. Inequalities in self-rated health among 45+ year-olds in Almaty, Kazakhstan: a cross-sectional study // BMC Public Health. 2013. Vol. 13, 654.

18.     Cleopas T. J. et al. Statistics Applied to Clinical Trials. 4th ed. Springer, 2009.

19.     Katulanda P., Ranasinghe C., Rathnapala A. Karunaratne N., Sheriff R. Prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption and its’ association with tobacco smoking among Sri Lankan adults: a cross-sectional study // BMC Public Health. 2014. Vol. 14, 612.

20.     Khasnutdinova S. L., Grjibovski A. M. Prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents in Velsk district, north-west Russia: A cross-sectional study using both international and Russian growth references // Public Health. 2010. Vol. 124. PP. 392-397.

 

References:

1.         Banerzhi A. Meditsinskaya statistika ponyatnyim yazyikom: vvodnyiy kurs. [Introduction to medical statistics]. M. : Prakticheskaya meditsina, 2007. P. 287. [in Russian]

2.         Vlasov V. V. Epidemiologiya: uchebnoe posobie dlya vuzov. [Epidemiology: the textbook] M. : GEOTAR-Media, 2004. P. 448. [in Russian]

3.    Vorob'ev K. P. Format sovremennoy zhurnalnoy publikatsii po rezultatam klinicheskogo issledovaniya. Chast 3. [Format of the modern journal publication of the results of a clinical study. Part 3] // Ukr. med. Chasopis [Ukrainian medical journal]. 2008. No. 2. PP. 150-160. [in Russian]

4.         Glants S. Mediko-biologicheskaya statistika [The biomedical statistics]. M. :Praktika, 1998. PP. 459. [in Russian]

5.    Grjibovski A. M. Analiz nominal'nykh dannykh (nezavisimye nablyudeniya) [Analysis of nominal data] // Ekologiya cheloveka [Human Ecology]. 2008. No. 6. PP. 58-68. [in Russian]

6. Grjibovski A. M. Vybor statisticheskogo kriteriya dlya proverki gipotez [Choosing a statistical test for hypothesis testing] // Ekologiya cheloveka [Human Ecology]. 2008. No.11. PP. 48-57. [in Russian]

2.         Grjibovski A. M. Doveritel'nye interval dlya chastoti dolei [Confidence intervals for proportions] // Ekologiya cheloveka [Human Ecology]. 2008. No.5. PP. 57-60. [in Russian]

3.         Donneli-ml. R.A. Statistika.M. :Astrel : AST, 2007.  P.367. [in Russian]

4.         Zaitsev V. M., Alikbaeva L. A. Meditsins-kaya statistika v ambulatorno-poliklinicheskikh uchrezhdeniyakh promyshlennykh predpriyatii [Medical statistics in the outpatient clinics of industrial enterprises: textbook]. SPb. : Izd-vo SPb GMA im. I.I. Mechnikova, 2009. P. 416. [in Russian]

5.         Zueva L.P, Yafaev R.H. Epidemiologiya: uchebnik [Epidemiology: the textbook]. SPb : OOO «IzdatelstvoFoliant», 2008. P. 752. [in Russian]

6.         Infektsionnye bolezni i epidemiologiya: Uchebnik [Infections Diseases and Epidemiology: the textbook] V.I. Pokrovskii [i dr.]. Izd. 2-e. M.: GEOTAR-Media, 2007. 816 p. [in Russian]

7.         Mar'yanovich A.T., Knyaz'kin I.V. Dissertatsiya: instruktsiya po podgotovke i zashchite. [Disertation: instructions for preparing and protecting] SPb. :Astrel'-SPb. 2009. p. 403. [in Russian]

8.         Osnovy meditsinskoi statistiki: uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie [Basics of medical statistics: textbook] / Ed.. V.S. Luchkevich. SPb : Izd-vo SZGMU im. I.I. Mechnikova, 2014. p. 32. [in Russian]

9.         Primenenie metodov statisticheskogo analiza dlya izucheniya obshchestvennogo zdorov'ya i zdravookhraneniya: ucheb. Posobie dlya prakticheskikh zanyatii [Application of methods of statistical analysis for the study of public health and health care: textbook] / Ed. V.Z. Kucherenko. 4th ed. M. : GEOTAR-Media, 2011. p. 256. [in Russian]

10.      Filippenko N. G. Metodicheskie osnovy provedeniya klinicheskikh issledovanii i statisticheskoi obrabotki poluchennykh dannykh: metodicheskie rekomendatsii dlya aspirantov i soiskateley meditsinskikh vuzov [Basics of clinical trials and statistic analysis] / N.G. Filippenko, S.V. Povetkin. Kursk. : Izdatelstvo KGMU, 2010. P. 26. [in Russian]

11.      Fletcher R. et al. Klinicheskaya ehpidemiologiya. Osnovy dokazatel'noi meditsiny [Clinical epidemiology. Basics of the evidence-based medicine] / R. Fletchtr, C. Fletcher, E. Vagner. M. : Media Sphere, 1998. 352 p. [in Russian]

12.      Abikulova A. K., Tulebaev K. A., Akanov A. A., Turdalieva B. S., Kalmahanov S. B., Kumar A. B., Izekenova A. K., Mussaeva B. A., Grjibovski A. M. Inequalities in self-rated health among 45+ year-olds in Almaty, Kazakhstan: a cross-sectional study // BMC Public Health. 2013. Vol. 13, 654.

13.      Cleopas T. J. et al. Statistics Applied to Clinical Trials. 4th ed. Springer, 2009.

14.      Katulanda P., Ranasinghe C., Rathnapala A. Karunaratne N., Sheriff R. Prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption and its’ association with tobacco smoking among Sri Lankan adults: a cross-sectional study // BMC Public Health. 2014. Vol. 14, 612.

Khasnutdinova S. L., Grjibovski A. M. Prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents in Velsk district, north-west Russia: A cross-sectional study using both international and Russian growth references // Public Health. 2010. Vol. 124. PP. 392-397
Number of Views: 2384


Bibliography link

Пивина Л. М., Молдагалиева Ж. Т., Муздубаева Ж. Е., Белихина Т. И., Маркабаева А.М., Жунусова Т. Медико-социальная проблема болезней системы кровообращения в Республике Казахстан / / Наука и Здравоохранение. 2015. №2. С. 50-59. Pivina L. M., Moldagalieva Zh. T., Muzdubayeva Zh. E., Belikhina T. I., Markabayeva A. M., Zhunussova T. Medical and social problem of cardiovascular diseases in Kazakhstan. Nauka i Zdravoohranenie [Science & Healthcare]. 2015, 2, pp. 50-59. Пивина Л. М., Молдагалиева Ж. Т., Муздубаева Ж. Е., Белихина Т. И., Маркабаева А. М. Жунусова Т. Қазақстан Республикасындағы қанайналымы жүйелерінің аурулары медициналық – әлеуметтік мәселесі / / Ғылым және Денсаулық сақтау. 2015. №2. Б. 50-59.