RADIATION–INDUCED LUNG INJURY. LITERATURE REVIEW
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Introduction. Despite the numerous data about results of morphological studies of lungs at the cellular and tissue levels in different radiation situations, and also regarding connection assessment of increasing bronchopulmonary diseases with the values of external and internal doses exposure during acute and long–term periods, hitherto not fully explored the association revealed pulmonary disorders with exposure to γ– and neutron radiation effects, it is not fully proven the value of radiation dose and duration of radiation influence on the nature of detectable pathology, there are no systemic data about morphogenesis of their damaging effect on the lungs. The review purpose was to analysis of the literature regarding the nature of morphofunctional disorders in the lungs during exposed to radiation of different levels and types. Materials and methods. To achieve this purpose we have searched and analysis of scientific publications. All received working to the review formation has been indexed in the databases PubMed, Medline, E–library, Cyberleninka using «Google Scholar» scientific search engine. The following search filters have been delivered before the start of the search: experimental studies carried out on mice and rats, for the past 10 years, published in English, Japanese and Russian languages, as well as full versions of papers with legibly formulated and statistically proven conclusions. Exclusion criteria included a review of publications became summary reports, newspaper articles and personal notifications. Results. Analysis of published data showed that radiation–induced lung injury defined by the defeat by bronchial lesion, causing the development of atelectasis with subsequent connective tissue organization, serous–fibrinous alveolitis with epithelial desquamation, vascular damage and endothelial proliferation, increased vascular permeability with excretion of plasmatic proteins. It should be noted that the secondary immunodeficiency condition, developing under the influence of radiation factor are realization of pathogenetic mechanisms that contributes to formation of inflammatory and fibrotic processes in the lungs, inducing development of acute inflammatory infiltrative pneumonitis and chronic fibrosing pneumonitis. Conclusion. The findings data support a role of ionizing radiation in the formation of morphological signs of the radiation–induced pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis which are form of lung damage depending on both the dose and type of radiation. According to result of majority of leading research in the field of radiology regarding the assessment of neutron radiation effect on the lungs, there is no consensus. Thus, radiobiologists and morphologists have opportunity to continue studies concerning neutron radiation effects, moreover to evaluate and compare the degree of pulmonary structural changes, which will develop diagnostic criteria for the study of persons' lungs exposed to different types of ionizing radiation.
Darkhan E. Uzbеkоv¹, http://orcid.org/0000–0003–4399–460X Masaharu Hоshi², http://orcid.org/0000–0001–6978–0883 Nailya Zh. Chaizhunusova³, http://orcid.org/0000–0002–6660–7118 Dariya M. Shаbdаrbаеvа¹, http://orcid.org/0000–0001–9463–1935 Nurlan B. Sayakenov¹, http://orcid.org/0000–0002–5082–7554 Semey State Medical University, ¹ Department of Pathological anatomy and Forensic medicine, ³ Department of Nutrition and Hygienic disciplines, Semey, Kazakhstan; ² Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima, Japan
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