Online ISSN: 3007-0244,
Print ISSN:  2410-4280
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF 24-HOUR DIETARY RECALLS AND FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES ADMINISTERED SIMULTANEOUSLY IN THE KAZAKHSTANI POPULATION
Introduction: Dietary habits and eating patterns of individuals have a significant impact on overall health. Proper nutrition is vital to preventing chronic diseases and improving physical and mental performance. Kazakhstan, a rapidly developing country in Central Asia, offers a unique opportunity to study the diverse dietary behavior of its population due to cultural, ethnic and geographic differences. Purpose: to study dietary habits and nutritional status of persons aged 18 years and older in various regions of Kazakhstan. Materials and methods: The study was conducted over a period of six months and covered urban and rural areas of various regions of Kazakhstan, including large cities such as Astana, Almaty and Aktobe, as well as their surrounding rural areas. A stratified sample of 370 participants was used and were randomly selected from each stratum to ensure representativeness. Statistical analyzes included determination of dietary patterns, assessment of agreement between food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour recalls, and correlation and visualization of agreement between these methods using Bland-Altman plots. To improve the accuracy of food intake estimates, Willett energy adjustment was applied using Python 3.9 and associated libraries (NumPy, SciPy, pandas, Scikit-learn). Results: In this study, conducted in different regions of Kazakhstan, significant regional differences in food intake and nutritional status were observed among 370 participants. A comparative analysis of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and 24-hour recall showed that urban residents tend to have higher consumption of processed foods, whereas rural residents are more likely to consume traditional, minimally processed foods. This difference highlights the influence of geography, culture, and economic factors on eating habits. Urban and rural settings exhibited unique dietary patterns: urban areas experienced greater diversity in food consumption, but also a higher propensity for nutrient inequalities. Conclusions: Combining multiple dietary assessment tools and using larger sample sizes may improve the accuracy and reliability of dietary data. Additionally, education and training of participants in portion size estimation and dietary reporting may help improve the quality of data collected using these methods. In conclusion, the study shows that the FFQ and 24-hour recall methods are reliable and correlate well in assessing intake of essential nutrients in Kazakhstan.
Ayaulym F. Nurgozhina1, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7042-4763 Laura Y. Chulenbayeva1, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8691-9485 Zhanel Y. Mukhanbetzhanova1, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8833-5048 Darya T. Sadvokassova1, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1138-2078 Shynggys D. Sergazy1, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6030-620X Nurislam A. Mukhanbetzhanov1, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6708-7871 Madiyar A. Nurgaziyev1, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2397-4978 Argul A. Issilbayeva1, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7350-6083 Elizaveta А. Vinogradova1, https://orcid.org/0009-0003-1845-2726 Almagul R. Kushugulova2, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9479-0899 1 National Laboratory Astana, Nazarbayev University, Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan; 2JSC “National Research Cardiac Surgery Center”, Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan.
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Nurgozhina A.F., Chulenbayeva L.Y., Mukhanbetzhanova Zh.Y., Sadvokassova D.T., Sergazy Sh.D., Mukhanbetzhanov N.A., Nurgaziyev M.A., Issilbayeva A.A., Vinogradova E.A., Kushugulova A.R. A comparative analysis of 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires administered simultaneously in the Kazakhstani population // Nauka i Zdravookhranenie [Science & Healthcare]. 2024. Vol.26 (2), pp. 27-35. doi 10.34689/SH.2024.26.2.004

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